In addition to judges chambers and courtrooms, the courthouse contains the following offices:
- Animal Control
- Circuit Clerk
- County Board
- County Clerk and Recorder
- County Treasurer
- States Attorney
- Superintendent of Schools
The county courthouse is located at 1001 Walnut in historic, downtown Murphysboro, Illinois. The courthouse is open from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, but is closed for normal business on the county's legal holidays and all general election days.
A Spanish language interpreter is usually available to assist visitors.
The current reinforced concrete courthouse replaced earlier wooden structures and was built during 1927-1928.
The original county seat and courthouse were located along the Big Muddy River at Brownsville. To afford a more strategic location after the courthouse in Brownsville was destroyed by fire, county government was moved upstream a few miles to Murphysboro. There are few traces of Brownsville still visible. On February 27, 1843 the Illinois General Assembly created a commission to designate a new county seat for Jackson County.
Situated along the Mississippi River in the area of Southern Illinois known as "Little Egypt," Jackson County is steeped in resources and history. Jackson County, named after the seventh President of the United States, incorporated as a county within the Illinois territory on January 10, 1816. Prior to that date the area was part of a much larger Randolph County that first incorporated on October 5, 1795. Illinois would not become a state of the Union until December 3, 1818. Surrounding counties with their current boundaries incorporated later:
- Franklin County: January 2, 1818
- Union County: January 2, 1818
- Perry County: January 29, 1827
- Williamson County: February 28, 1839